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Queues In System Verilog
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Queue :

In queues size is flexible. It can change easily

  1. Variable size array with automatic sizing, single dimension
  2. Many searching, sorting, and insertion methods
  3. Constant time to read, write, and insert at front & back
  4. Out of bounds access causes run-time error

A Queue is a variable size ordered collection of homogeneous objects. There are two main aspects of a queue that makes it attractive for verification purposes. First, a queue can have variable length, including a length of zero. This makes a queue an ideal candidate as a storage element that can shrink or grow as elements are deleted or added to it without fixing an artificial upper limit on its size as a regular fixed size array. The other advantage of having a queue is that, it provides a way to emulate both Last In
First Out (LIFO) and First In First Out (FIFO) behavior that are required in so many ordered transactions. At the same time a queue still allows you to access any element randomly within the queue without any overhead just as a regular array. A Queue is analogous to one dimensional unpacked array that grows and shrinks automatically. Queues are declared using the same syntax as unpacked arrays, but specifying '$' as the array size.

byte q1 [$];
integer my_q[$] = {1, 3, 5};
string names [$] = {“Ram, Sham, Laxman”};

bit q [$:255]; 
// A queue whose maximum size is 256 bits.

Example :

module example ;

   int int_queue[$] = { 1, 2, 3 };
   string string_queue [$] = {"first","second","third","forth"};

   string s;

      // example of the use of size
      $display("\n Use of size()");

      for (int i = 0 ; i < int_queue.size(); i++ )

      $display("\n\n Elements of string_queue[$]");
      for (int i = 0; i < string_queue.size; i++)
         $write(string_queue[i]," ");

      // example of the use of insert
      string_queue.insert(1,"next"); // former element 1 is now element 2.

      $display("\n\n Use of insert()");
      for (int i = 0; i < string_queue.size; i++)
         $write(string_queue[i]," ");

      // example of the use of delete
      string_queue.delete(1); // delete the element

      $display("\n\n Use of delete()");
      for (int i = 0; i < string_queue.size; i++)
         $write(string_queue[i]," ");

      // example of the use of pop_front
      // deletes the front of the queue
      s = string_queue.pop_front();
      $display("\n\n Use of pop_front()");
      $display(" %s",s);

      for (int i = 0; i < string_queue.size; i++)
         $write(string_queue[i]," ");

      // example of the use of pop_back
      // deletes the back of the queue
      s = string_queue.pop_back();
      $display("\n\n Use of pop_back()");
      $display(" %s",s);
      for (int i = 0; i < string_queue.size; i++)
         $write(string_queue[i]," ");

      // example of the use of push_front and push_back
      // grows the queue

      $display("\n\n Use of push_front() and push_back()");
      for (int i = 0; i < string_queue.size; i++)
         $write(string_queue[i]," \n ");


Output :

#  Use of size()
#           1
#           2
#           3
#  Elements of string_queue[$]
# first second third forth
#  Use of insert()
# first next somewhere second third forth
#  Use of delete()
# first somewhere second forth
#  Use of pop_front()
#  first
# somewhere second forth
#  Use of pop_back()
#  forth
# somewhere second
#  Use of push_front() and push_back()
# in-front
#  somewhere
#  second
#  in-back


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